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The term capital It comes from the Occitan language. In the architecture , it is called capital to upper sector of a pilaster or of one column , which decorates and complements it as a molding.

The capital is a architectural element which transmits to the pilaster or to the column the loads coming from the horizontal entablature. It also allows the transition of those parts between which it is located.

He Egyptian capital It is the oldest known. According to his figure, it is called papyrus (imitates the papyrus plant), palm tree (inspired by date palms), hórorico (which represents the goddess Hator ) or lotiform (created in honor of the lotus flower).

In Persia capitals with double-headed figures were used. The Romans and the Greeks, meanwhile, developed different kinds of capitals: Ionic , Doric , Tuscans and others. Then the Islamic capital , he Byzantine capital , he gothic capital and else types of capitals.

That without forgetting that within what are the Muslim capitals we can also find several types such as the following: the caliphal capital, the Tulun capital, the capital of taifas and the Nasrid capital.

Of the same there are many more important capitals in what is the history of art and architecture. Thus, for example, we run into the so-called capital of pencas, which is a type of Muslim capital that was inspired, to some extent, by the Corinthian. However, it comes to simplify that in such a way that it does not bet on representing all the acanthus leaves but simply what are its beginnings, the pencas.

In addition, there is also the hornet's capital. This is another Muslim type that is characterized by being composed and inspired by Roman architecture. If it has that name it is because it has a large number of holes, created with a trephine.

Of course, we must not forget the so-called curb capital, which originated in the twelfth century. The Almohads seem to be the creators of the same that is characterized because it incorporates scrolls, but between them includes a series of horizontal bands as ribbons. And hence his name.

But the wealth of Muslim art does not stop there. Thus within it is also the capital of ataurique, where both vegetable and pineapple motifs take center stage, and the capital of mocárabes, where different stalactite compositions become relevant.

In general, it can be said that a capital consists of a astragalus (the molding found in the base and that develops around the shaft of the column), a drum (the body of the capital) and a abacus (the board that serves as a shot and that supports the beginning of the lintel or the arch).

It is important not to confuse a capital with a spire : the conical or pyramidal top of a tower. Anyway, the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE ) recognizes both terms as synonyms.

For the botany Finally, the capital is the sheath or sheath that form the leaves of certain plants in the stipe.

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