A neuron is a nerve cell which, through electrical and chemical signals, receives, processes and sends information . Neurons they capture the stimuli and they drive the nerve impulse through connections that are called synapse .
The body of the neuron can have various forms. In it it is possible to detect different extensions, the most extensive being the axon . Just the axon, also known as neurite , is responsible for the transmission of nerve impulses to other nerve, muscle or other cells.
Thanks to the synapse , the neurons allow the interconnection of the various components of the nervous system . Thus, when a sensory zone of the organism registers a stimulus, the information in question is conducted by the neurons to the component responsible for offering a response. That new signal, in turn, is also transferred by neurons for the execution of some action (a secretion of a gland, a contraction of a muscle, a movement, etc.).
The neurons that convert external stimuli into internal ones are called sensory neurons or sensory neurons . Its activation occurs when the ear, touch or other sense capture the stimulus. The information is then sent by these neurons to the spinal cord or to the brain .
The efferent neurons or effector neurons , meanwhile, they are dedicated to the transport of nerve impulses to the outside of the central nervous system, taking them to the glands or muscles .
It is estimated that the adult human being has an average of 86,000 million neurons . These cells are organized in neural networks and also create neural circuits from its synaptic connections.