A pipeline is a very large and thick pipe which allows to transport a gas Fuel over a long distance. It is common for the pipeline to start at a natural site and then go to a distribution center.
Also called gas pipeline , a gas pipeline allows gas to circulate at high pressure . Generally, gas pipelines are pipes that are buried at a depth of between 1 and 2 meters. In some cases, however, these pipes develop over the surface .
In this context the pressure unit known as Pub , which is equivalent to one million barias, the unity which is defined as the pressure exerted by a force of a dyne over a space of a square centimeter. The unit of force called dyna is equivalent to 10 Newtons raised to at least 5, or to the force that when applied to a mass of one gram passes an acceleration of one centimeter per second squared.
In the basic network, gas usually circulates through the pipeline with a Pressure from 72 bar . To reach homes, in the urban distribution network the pressure is reduced to 16 bar .
Although the regulations governing its creation and operation may vary by country, pipelines must respect various criteria for reasons of security . The installation of valves that allow interrupting the flow every certain intervals in the event of an accident (such as a leak that negatively affects the gas pressure) and of sensors that can detect possible leaks and the creation of compression stations are some of the measures usual.
These compression stations must be placed along the pipeline, at a specific distance from each other, in cases where the pipe is very long. This safety measure is usually complemented by the installation of fiber optic cables that allow the transmission of the status information of the gas pipeline so that operators can detect the leaks on time. The construction of roads to facilitate access to the points where leaks occur, as well as the installation of fire fighting equipment and emergency stations are also regulatory.
To minimize the environmental impact of pipelines, the construction process is subject to various inspections. Then the paw print which produces the installation of the gas pipeline in the field.
Usually, the pipeline starts near a sea port passing ships carrying the liquefied natural gas (LNG ), the natural gas that has gone through the process necessary for its transport in a liquid state. Its starting point can be a regasification plant or a reservoir, although sometimes they are installed for the connection of gas plants with others that are dedicated to packaging and are located in the city.
Other purposes that lead to the construction of a gas pipeline are the distribution along a net determined of pipes (that can be found in a city, a factory or a center of consumption) and the filling of cylinders.
There are two fundamental techniques to draw a pipeline through a river: the drilling horizontal and directed. They serve to avoid any disorder in the fauna and flora of the place. They can also be applied to cross rail lines, highways and roads.
The longest pipeline in the world is in China . With an extension of over 8000 kilometers , was inaugurated at the end of 2012 and required an investment of about 22 570 million dollars . This line allows transport near 30 billion cubic meters of gas annually .