System Electoral is a notion composed of two terms: system (the ordered module of components that are interrelated and that interact with each other) and electoral (that linked to elections and voters).
He electoral system , therefore, is the structure composed of normative and the processes which, fixed by the law , allow citizens to intervene in political decisions through the vote . It could be said that, through the electoral system, individuals become electors and select the leaders who hold various public positions in the government .
The activity of political parties, the mechanisms through which citizens issue their vote , the count of the votes and the distribution of the charges according to the results of the election are some of the issues that are linked to the electoral system in force in a given territory.
Let's look at a simple and fictitious example to understand the operation of an electoral system. In a country X , he electoral system states that all citizens older than 18 years and under 75 years they must vote in the presidential elections, which are held every four years. As defined by this system, the vote is secret and is issued through ballots that are introduced at the polls. The president is the candidate who gets the most votes: if he fails to establish a difference greater than 10% compared to the second u get less than 50% of the votes, a second round of voting takes place between the two candidates with the highest number of votes.
In Spain, for example, citizens 18 years of age and older vote to choose not only their mayors but also the presidents of the different autonomous communities and, of course, the deputies and senators who will shape the Congress and the Senate. Hence, therefore, there are local, regional and general elections.
Another of the bases of the Spanish electoral system in the case of what the general elections are is that it is based on it called the d'Hont system, which dates back to the 19th century and that establishes a proportional calculation. Thus, when it comes to knowing, for example, the seats of each game, you must follow these steps:
-The scrutiny of the votes obtained is carried out and they are ordered from highest to lowest, in a column, what are the numbers of votes obtained by each candidacy.
-Then we proceed to “eliminate” the candidates who, at least, have not obtained 3% of the valid votes cast.
- Then what is done is to divide the number of votes cast for each candidacy by 1, 2 and 3 and so on up to the number equal to the number of seats corresponding to that electoral constituency. In that sense it is necessary to establish that these seats will be distributed to the candidates that logically have obtained more votes and that is something that will be done in a decreasing way.
The key to this aforementioned electoral system d'Hont is that the most voted candidates are rewarded and the “least votes” obtained at the polls are “punished”.