Soma It is a concept that has multiple meanings. Latin derivative summa, the word can be used to identify a variety of coarse flour and at bread Made with this ingredient.
The notion also serves to mention the total body structure of living organisms, except for gametes.
From the perspective of botany, the notion is intended to identify a plant of psychotropic characteristics whose sap was used in Vedic religious rituals. Bliss plant It has not yet been individualized, although it is mentioned in numerous old texts that refer to its energizing properties.
It should also be noted that the writer Aldous Huxley (1894 -1963 ) baptized as soma a substance that the protagonists of his novel consume "A happy world" . This drug, it is said, acts as an antidepressant because it causes people to forget their sentences.
He mausoleum that housed the remains of Alexander the Great has also received the name of soma. Archaeologists believe it would be located in the Egyptian city of Alexandria .
Soma or somaterapia , in other areas, is a therapy created by the Brazilian Roberto Freire which considers that neurotic conflicts arise from the power relations existing in the society .
The so-called Soma cube Finally, it is a geometric puzzle that challenges to fit seven parts into a main structure. Piet hein He was the creator of this puzzle that was born in 1936 and that can be solved, according to some mathematicians, in 240 different ways. It should be noted that the Soma cube It also allows you to create other geometric or figurative designs.
Soma is also the name it receives the composition of a neuron (covering its nucleus and nucleoli). That is, it represents the center of the cell that has the ability to receive stimuli; Without it, the life of the neuron is not possible.
Regarding its size, it differs according to the neuron, it can range from 4 to 150 microns. It is formed by the nucleus, cytoplasm (with all the parts of which it has been composed: neurofilaments, endoplasmic reticulum, microtubules, etc.) and the extensions (formed by dendrites and axons).
Neurons are the structural units of nervous system (present in all living beings belonging to the Animal Kingdom) and, because they are arranged in the organism through complex networks, they can fluidly communicate each region of the organism with the Nervous System, allowing one of the characteristics that differentiates living beings from the rest of organisms, irritability (ability to respond to various stimuli from the external environment).
The functions of the soma within the neuron are three: sustain efficiency functional and anatomical of the neuron, extend the extensions so that the surface on which nerve impulses can be transmitted increases and ensure the normal functioning of neurotransmitters through the synthesis of messenger type chemicals.
Neurons can be classified taking into account various criteria.
From the morphological point of view They may be: unipolar (they have only one extension, called axon), bipolar (they have two extensions, called dendrite and axon) and multipolar (They have more than two extensions: two or more dendrites and an axon).
According to its functionality They may be: sensory (move the impulses from a receptor to the nerve center), motorboats (they communicate the modulating centers with the effectors) and interneurons (communicate the sensory pathways with the motor within the nervous system) and motor.
In turn, there is a third classification that takes into account the driving speed, in this case the neurons can be unmyelinated (Lack of myelin and conduct the impulses slowly) or myelinics (The driving speed is related to the thickness of your myelin, the greater the thickness the greater the speed will also be)
It is worth mentioning that myelin is a substance with insulating characteristics It covers the axons of neurons allowing fluid conduction of stimuli from one region to another.